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AFR + Fuel Tuning


AFR+ BASIC FUNCTIONALITY

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Like any electronic device you need to know the basic operations before you can fully start to use the equipment. Don't worry though, the AFR+ will have you making adjustments in seconds. There is NO COMPLEX SOFTWARE program for you to learn. There are only a few parts of information to KNOW and you are ready to CONTROL.

KNOW IT

  1. Understand General Terminology
  2. Understand AFR values
  3. Narrowband vs Wideband O2 Sensors
  4. Recommended AFR Values to Target with Fueling Modes

CONTROL IT

  1. Understand the AFR Gauge Display
  2. How to Adjust and Refer to Controller Mode Settings
  3. Fuel Trim vs. Auto-Tune
  4. How to Set the Auto-Tune Modes


UNDERSTAND GENERAL TERMINOLOGY:
Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) - The most common reference term used for mixtures in internal combustion engines. It is the ratio between the mass of air and the mass of fuel in the air-fuel mix at any given moment.

Oxygen (O2) Sensor - Is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the exhaust gas.

Wideband vs Narrowband sensors - A narrowband O2 sensor is only calibrated to know whether the current AFR is rich, lean, or stoich. A wideband O2 sensor is much more sophisticated and can supply the exact AFR measurement across a wide range of possible AFR values.

Load - Is the measurement of how hard an engine is working. Coasting downhill is considered very low load. Driving uphill is considered high load. DP's EFI tuning technology is a load based system.

Open loop vs Closed loop - Different operations both the stock ECU and the AFR+ can function under independently. Open loop means NO fuel trimming is occurring based on the O2 sensor signal. Closed loop is using the O2 sensor input signal to react rapidly to the changing conditions and make fuel trims to match the desired air/fuel mixture.


UNDERSTAND AFR VALUES:
AFR Values & Characteristics in Four Stroke Engines
 6.0 AFR - Rich Burn Limit (engine fully warm)
 9.0 AFR - Black Smoke / Low Power
11.5 AFR - Best Rich Torque at Wide Open Throttle
12.2 AFR - Safe Best Power at Wide Open Throttle
13.3 AFR - Lean Best Torque
14.6 AFR - Stoichiometric AFR (Stoich)
15.5 AFR - Lean Cruise
16.5 AFR - Usual Best Economy
18.0 AFR - Carbureted Lean Burn Limit
22.0+ AFR - EEC / EFI Lean Burn Limit

Lean Conditions - Common Side Affects
Hotter Engine Temperatures
Detonation / Pinging
Hesitation in Throttle Response

Rich Conditions - Common Side Affects
Engine Flooding
Decel Pop / Backfiring
Lethargic Throttle Response
Excess Carbon Build-up (sooty pipes)
Fuel Smell from the Exhaust




NARROWBAND vs. WIDEBAND O2 SENSORS:
Due to emission regulations the use of O2 sensors has become prevalent in the powersports industry on OEM vehicles. The concept of implementing an auto-tune / closed loop / self mapping fuel control system has also become prevalent in the after-market tuning industry. A huge misunderstanding results from the type of O2 sensors which can be used in each application. The AFR+ system uses a wideband O2 sensor to display the full range of AFR values and target performance AFR values along with fuel economy AFR values.

A Narrowband O2 Sensor is only calibrated to know whether the current AFR is rich, lean, or stoich. The sensor targets a NARROW range around the stoich AFR value of 14.6 to help stock ECU systems fuel trim to meet emission standards.

A Wideband O2 Sensor is much more sophisticated and can supply the exact AFR measurement across a WIDE range of possible AFR values.


RECOMMENDED AFR VALUES TO TARGET WITH FUELING MODES:
IDLE / LIGHT CRUISE: 13.5 AFR - target with GREEN mode
When you start your vehicle we refer to this as being in IDLE condition. When you shift into gear and drive at a low mph we refer to this as being a LIGHT CRUISE. With 14.7 being the industry standard stoich AFR value, we typically like to see these conditions run slightly richer. We target this condition with our GREEN zone and suggest to tune by leaving the vehicle at an idle, but hold the throttle slightly open to a constant rpm. Adjusting the fuel will affect the sound of the engine. We are looking to adjust the fuel to get the smoothest engine operation.

CRUISING: 13.5 to 14 AFR - target with YELLOW mode
Most of the time you are driving your vehicle you will be within our CRUISE zone. This condition is the most wide open for customer preference based on two factors. If you prefer better GAS MILEAGE then run a leaner mixture.
14 AFR (on-road bikes)
Most stock to slightly modified engines will run just fine at an AFR of 15:1 and yield better MPG. If you prefer better PERFORMANCE then we suggest to run an AFR of 14:1 or even richer to around 13.5:1.
13.5 AFR (off-road vehicles)
Most stock to slightly modified engines will run just fine at an AFR of 14.5:1 and yield better MPG. If you prefer better PERFORMANCE then we suggest to run an AFR of 13.5:1 or even richer to around 13:1.

FULL THROTTLE / HIGH RPMS: 12.5 AFR - target with RED mode
Driving full out within a gear will bring you into our FULL THROTTLE zone. This condition is where the peak horsepower value is obtained. The Acceleration zone below may throw in a quick adjustment of fuel, but usually only engages for a couple of seconds. When maintaining a full throttle condition you should enter our red zone and will want to run a richer AFR to get the best performance. Best performance for most vehicles is in the 12.5:1 to 13:1 AFR range. Going too rich will have the opposite affect and decrease your performance.

ACCELERATION: 12 AFR - target with GREEN/BLUE mode
Getting up to cruising speed or getting ready to pass someone, you usually are looking for the performance to get up and go. We refer to any fast turn of the throttle as our ACCELERATION zone. Depending on the RATE of the throttle change will determine how much our controller will affect the fueling. Zone only engages for a couple of seconds.
Slow rate: may not even change anything.
Fast rate: results in the max change set by the mode.
Moderate rate: calculates out linear representation between zero and the max set value by the mode.


UNDERSTAND THE AFR GAUGE DISPLAY AND OPERATION:
AFR GAUGE DISPLAY
  • Background Label - Contains AFR values ranging from 10:1 to 16:1. These are used to determine your current operating AFR and also your mode settings. May be a black, white or light gray label.

  • Needle - Used to determine your current operating AFR and also your mode settings by moving throughout the range of the gauge. May be an orange or white needle.

  • Mode, Left and Right Buttons - Buttons are used to make setting adjustments to the different modes enabled on the unit.

  • 4 LEDs (Green, Yellow, Red, Blue) - Used to determine active zone during vehicle operation. Also used to determine current adjustment mode when making tuning adjustments. SOLID when in OPERATION MODE. FLASHING when in ADJUSTMENT MODE.

  Dobeck AFR Gauge
AFR GAUGE OPERATION
  • Startup Mode - When you start your vehicle the LEDs will scroll back and forth for several seconds. The needle may sweep across the entire gauge and back, but will stay at one side of the gauge. After a period of time the needle will then move to a position which is displaying the current AFR value. The time period varies based on how warm the engine is on your vehicle. When one LED is being displayed and the needle is displaying an AFR value then you are ready to ride.

  • Operating Mode - When your vehicle is running and the O2 sensor is warmed up then the needle should be displaying the current AFR value and one or more of the LEDs should be viewable to inform the user which mode is active.

  • Adjustment Mode - When your vehicle is running six modes are available to make adjustments on the AFR+. You enter the adjustment mode by pressing the MODE button on the AFR gauge. Correctly entering the adjustment mode should display a flashing GREEN LED on the LED display.

  • Auto-Tune/Closed-Loop Mode - BLUE LED VISIBLE - During auto-tune / closed loop operation the BLUE LED will be visible meaning fuel adjustments are being made from the Bosch O2 Sensor reading compared to the targeted AFR value. The BLUE led will be on at the SAME TIME as one of the other zone leds.


HOW TO ADJUST AND REFER TO CONTROLLER MODE SETTINGS:
Recommended settings for the AFR+ are given as NUMERICAL VALUES between 10 and 16. ONLY if a mode is running in closed loop (auto-tune) does the setting actually refer to an AFR value. Secondary values ranging from +30 to -30 are used to reference open-loop fueling modes and switch point modes.

EXAMPLE SETTINGS:

GRN @ 12.8 (+2) - GREEN FUEL OPEN LOOP - The +2 states this mode would be adding +2% fuel to the stock ECU map.

YEL @ 13.2 - YELLOW FUEL CLOSED LOOP - The stated AFR value is what the AFR+ will actually target when the zone is active.

RED @ 12.8 - RED FUEL CLOSED LOOP - The stated AFR value is what the AFR+ will actually target when the zone is active.

G/B @ 13.2 (-2) - ACCEL PUMP FUEL OPEN LOOP - The -2 states this mode would be subtracting -2% fuel to the stock ECU map.

Y/B @ 11.4 (+16) - YELLOW LOWER SWITCH POINT - The values reference how soon a zone becomes active relative to the drive cycle. +25 is the fastest. -25 will not allow the zone to turn on (diagnostic mode).

R/B @ 13 (+0) - RED LOWER SWITCH POINT - The values reference how soon a zone becomes active relative to the drive cycle. +25 is the fastest. -25 will not allow the zone to turn on (diagnostic mode).


The AFR+ can be adjusted "on the fly" to tune your vehicle. No computer or other external device is needed to make tuning adjustments. All that is required is for your vehicle to be RUNNING which provides power to the unit. It is recommended to install the AFR+ and take a test ride first before making any mode adjustments.

Adjustment Mode - Six modes are available to make adjustments on the AFR+. You enter the adjustment mode by pressing the MODE button on the AFR gauge. Correctly entering the adjustment mode should display a flashing GREEN LED on the LED display. Pressing the MODE button repetitively will move you through all the modes. Take note that the MODE button is sensitive and will at times skip a mode. Pressing the MODE button at the last mode will bring you back to the first mode. To exit the adjustment mode and return to operation mode you just wait five seconds until the LED display reverts back to a solid LED color.

The six modes available are distinguished by an LED color combination. The six modes in respective order are as follows: Green, Yellow, Red, Green-Blue, Yellow-Blue, and Red-Blue. All six modes have a range of settings from 10 to 16. The settings are adjusted by pressing the RIGHT (->) and LEFT (<-) buttons. Modes 4, 5, and 6 are distinguished by the BLUE LED also flashing along with the corresponding mode color.




FUEL TRIM (Open-Loop) vs. AUTO-TUNE (Closed-loop):
The fueling modes on the AFR+ can function in two different ways. Different setups will be available for every AFR+ application to be programmed one way or the other. The POWERLAB programming package will need to be purchased to jump back and forth between the fueling modes. Different setups are found by browsing to your vehicle in the Product Section.
  • FUEL TRIM (Open-Loop) - Basic fuel manipulation where the input signal is either extended or shortened to add or subtract fuel from the stock OEM map. A value of 13 on the AFR+ is a 0% change for all open loop fueling modes.

  • AUTO-TUNE (Closed-loop) - Automatically adjusts the fueling to target the set AFR value for the active zone. The AFR+ system is a TRUE CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM and NOT simply a self-mapping system.



HOW TO SET THE AUTO-TUNE MODES:






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